Creating GENESIS 3 Simulations with Python

Related Documentation:

Index of GENESIS 3 User Tutorials

Creating a G-3 GUI with Python

Modeling Synaptic Connections and Large Networks with G-3


This is an introduction to creating G-3 simulation scripts in Python, using the SSPy component of G-3. It also provides information on the differences and similarities with SSP (Simple Scheduler in Perl) in the current G-3 Developers Release.

Some background on the G-shell and the NDF file format

This is the first in a series of tutorials describing how to create G-3 simulations from scripts written in Python. Python will be the primary scripting language for G-3 simulations, although the modular G-3 CBI architecture allows many other interfaces to the G-3 software components.

In principle, this tutorial should be the starting point for those who wish to use G-3 for neural modeling. However, there is some useful (and sometimes necessary) background material in the links given below.

The G-shell and the SSPy shell described here provide a useful interctive command line environment for trying out new G-3 features. During G-3 developmewnt, new features are first implemented in the G-shell test scripts, and then the Python bindings for the G-shell commands are tested with Python scripts. The G-shell test scripts can be found in your directory ~/neurospaces_project/gshell/source/snapshots/0/tests/scripts, and the Python test scripts can be found in ~/neurospaces_project/sspy/source/snapshots/0/tests/python. These may be useful for discovering new features that have not yet been incorporated into the tutorials.

At present, the 'ns-sli' backwards compatibility module will continue to be a useful tool for using GENESIS 2 models that are described in SLI syntax scripts and converting the models into the G-3 NDF representation.

For these reasons, this new series of tutorials based on Python will continue to make use of examples using commands invoked in the G-shell, and make references to the older tutorials that were based on the G-shell. Although these older tutorials are not strictly required as background for the Python tutorials, it may be useful to refer to the documentation in these links for clarification, as needed, for some of the examples given:

For further information about cell models in the G-3 library that have been converted from GENESIS 2, see Some NDF files of converted GENESIS 2 models.

Information about the NDF representation of cell morphologies and channels can be found in the first two tutorials, and in the documentation for:

Where are the example scripts and the graphical tools?

The userdocs documentation system is being extended to allow packaging of auxilary material such as scripts and data files with the documentation. Presently, there are these alternatives:

The earlier tutorials (e.g. tutorial1) recommended cutting and pasting from the displayed HTML, such as the link to Example script 1. These are generally short, and cut/paste is a reasonable solution.

A piece pf G-3 documentation is located in a directory such as 'userdocs/tutorial-python/scripting'. This directory will have a subdirectory 'figures' that is meant for image files to be displayed by the browser. However this location be used for any file type that is recognized by the browser, such as plain text files.

In order to for a browser to properly recognize and display the example script '' as a plain text file, it has been saved in the 'figures' directory as a plain text file. Then, for example, when you follow the link in the Python scripting tutorial for this file, it will actually be to 'simplecell-test.txt', which you can save and rename as you like.

Many browsers will recognise gzipped tar archive files. If this is the case for your browser, you may download and save the file python-scripting-examples.tar.gz and extract it with:

tar xvzf python-scripting-examples.tar.gz

These tutorials also make use of several graphical tools for plotting and display of simulation results. The following tools presently require the installation of the 'g-tube' module, which is an optional part of the G-3 installation procedure. After an installation or upgrade (with the --enable g-tube option), these will be available in '/usr/bin', '/usr/local/bin', or similar directory in your search path. (NOTE: In the future, these files may be distributed independently of the g-tube component of G-3.)

Documentation for these utilities can be found in The G3Plot package. This tutorial and the next will make use of 'g3plot' and ''. The Network Modeling Tutorial makes use of '' for the visualization of network activity.

These utilities also require the require the installation of the Matplotlib library for python, which can be downloaded from, wxPython, and the numpy numerical package. These are not presently required packages for the G-3 installation.

Some background for beginners with Python

The explanations of the example Python scripts in this tutorial assume a "beginner's" knowledge of Python programming, equivalent to a weekend spent looking through a book on introductory Python programming and experimenting with the examples. There are also many good tutorials and examples on the web. With this basic knowledge of Python syntax and what follows in this tutorial, you should have the information you need to modify these examples to create your own G-3 simulations by writing short scripts in Python. As with the previous GENESIS 2 Modeling Tutorials, the approach taken here is to build up a sequence of model simulations and explain the simulation scripts in enough detail so that you can use them as templates to modify for your own simulations.

Here are some useful links for learning how to program in Python:

The official Python documentation site has a well-organized index to the available documentation. The Python Tutorial is a good staring place. Be sure to read the chapter on Classes, as these G-3 examples will be based on the use of the object-oriented features of Python.

A short book on introductory Python programming that doesn't try to give too much detail would be a good preparation for digging into more detailed documentation from the web. At some point, you will want to consult the Python Language Reference. This will be useful for looking up syntax that you don't understand in an example.

The Simple Scheduler in Python (SSPy)

Before starting in with a Python scripting example, it is useful to know something about the SSPy (Simple Scheduler in Python) component of G-3. SSPy serves as a Python version of SSP in that it encapsulates the operations for loading and running a complete simulation. It also provides a shell similar to the G-shell. Most importantly, it provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) for interfacing with scripts written in Python. This means that a Python script that loads and runs a G-3 simulation, can also make use of the many GUI toolkits (e.g. wxPython), analysis and visualization tools (e.g. Matplotlib, which provides Python objects to replicate much of the functionality of Matlab), and Python modules for scientific computing such as scipy and numpy.

The SSPy documentation gives an overview of the use of the shell and of basic use of the API. This tutorial extends this documentation with an example based on the GENESIS 'simplecell' model that was used in Tutorial 3 Convert a GENESIS 2 Simulation to GENESIS 3. In this tutorial, a GENESIS 2 script for the Script Language Interpreter (SLI) was converted to a NDF model format file for G-3 and tested by running a current clamp simulation in the G-shell. The cell model used was 'simplecell', a simple two-compartment neuron, that has been used in many GENESIS tutorials. The soma compartment '/cell/soma' contains Hodgkin-Huxley type voltage-activated sodium and potassium channels (implemented as tabchannels), and the single dendrite compartment '/cell/dend' contains excitatory and inhibitory synaptically activated channels (implemented as synchans).

When collected together, the G-shell commands illustrated in Tutorial 3 would be:

ndf_load cells/simplecell-nolib.ndf
runtime_parameter_add /cell/soma INJECT 0.5e-9
output_add /cell/soma Vm
output_filename simplecell-test_Vm.out
heccer_set_timestep 20.0e-6
run /cell 0.5

To run this as an executable command line script, save it in a file, for example 'simplecell-test.g3' and add the line at the top:


This will let the (unix/linux) command shell recognize it to be executed after invoking the G-shell 'genesis-g3'. You will need to give it permission to run as an executeable program by changing the permissions with 'chmod a+x simplecell-test.g3'. Then you may simply run it from your console command line with:

$ simplecell-test.g3

The following tutorial example shows how to run this model or similar ones with SSPy.

Using SSPy as a replacement for G-shell

The SSPy documentation describes how to invoke the interactive shell with the --shell option to sspy, and how to use the 'help' command within the shell. The 'sspy' command will have been installed in a standard place on your search path when G-3 is installed or upgraded. To invoke the SSPy shell, issue the command:

$ sspy --shell

Once you have done this, use the 'help' command to explore the commands available within the shell. Although the commands listed by this command are very similar to the G-shell 'help commands' result, there are a few differences to be aware of.

NOTE: These are true for the Current G-3 Developers Release, and the syntax of commands used in the G-shell and SSPy will likely converge in later releases. They are offered for this preliminary documentation.

  1. The G-shell has both a 'runtime_parameter_add' and a 'model_parameter_add' command. At present, the distinction between a parameter that is intrinsic to the model ("model parameter") and one that is set at runtime ("runtime_parameter") is somewhat fuzzy. The SSPy shell has a single 'model_parameter_add' that is used to set model or runtime parameters. Thus, when entering the G-shell command listed above, the injection should be set with:

    model_parameter_add /cell/soma INJECT 0.5e-9
  2. The G-shell 'run' command takes only a time argument value in seconds. With the SSPy implementation (as seen with 'help run'), the value is interpreted as time in seconds if it is a floating point value, and a number of steps, if it is an integer. With the default 20.0e-6 sec simulation timestep, the following command would also run the simulation for 0.5 second:

    run /cell 25000
  3. Both shells have a 'output_resolution <integer-factor>' command that allows the time between output steps to be an integer multiple of the simulation time step. However, they each have limitations in the present implementation.

    The G-shell command is only valid if the output_mode is set to "steps" instead of the default empty string. Thus, the commands needed to increase the output interval would be:

    output_mode steps
    output_resolution 5

    The output mode determines whether the first column of the output is the number of steps or the simulation time for the remaining data on the line.

    The SSPy shell does not have an 'output_mode' command, and the default output_mode is the simulation time. However, the 'output_resolution' command requires that the 'run' command specifies the time, not the number of steps. (i.e., the situation is the reverse of that with G-shell.

  4. You will notice that some commands produce slightly different output. Under the G-shell 'list_elements' gives only the top level elements, e.g. '/cell' for the loaded NDF file. To see the subelements of the dendrite excitatory channel, one would use the full path 'list_elements /cell/dend/Ex_channel'. The SSPy shell 'list_elements' command gives the entire recursive list, by default.

With these commands, you should be able to reproduce the results produced in the G-shell.

Scripting with Python

An interactive shell is very useful for debugging and trying out commands to see how they are used, or to change model parameters on a command line. Both the G-shell and the newer SPPy shell will continue to be used for this. However, you will typically use a text editor to edit executable scripts written in Python that import the necessary G-3 Python modules. First, you will use a text editor to modify your own copy of one of the example scripts and open a console window to run them. Then you iterate the process of "edit, run, repeat until done". Although the SSPy shell is not intended for this, there are tools that (with some limitations) allow you to load a Python script, interact with it via a command line Python shell, and inspect the Python objects and data structures via a graphical interface. One of them is PyWrap, which is normally installed with wxPython.

The script reproduces the result above, but allows the inclusion of any available Python modules and the use of any valid Python commands.

It begins with a standard header that will be used for any script that you will write:

#! /usr/bin/env python
import pdb   # the Python debugger
import os
import sys

The first line indicates that it is to be proecessed by running 'python', and the next three include standard Python libraries that are used with SSPy. At this point, you may import any other Python modules that you need for use in your scripts, such as 'matplotlib' for graphics, or the custom G-3 graphical widgets used in the next tutorial in this series.

The following command is needed in order to provide a path to the libraries needed by SSPy. It will likely not be required in later releases:

sys.path.append( os.path.join(os.environ['HOME'],

Next, the location of the NDF model files to be loaded must be specified. Cell models are continually being added to the model library located in:


Some recent additions, including the 'simplecell-nolib.ndf' file used here, are described in the document Some NDF files of converted GENESIS 2 models. If there is a model there that you wish to run, you can specify the path with:


or alternatively if it is one of your own in another directory, such as the current one:

os.environ['NEUROSPACES_NMC_MODELS']= '.'

In the previous tutorial, we used the gshell to create a NDF format file for the simplecell model. Now, the model exists in the library as 'simplecell-nolib.ndf', so we use the first version.

A G-3 simulation involves the cooperation of various Components. The basic ones needed to run a cell model are the Scheduler (SSP or SSPy), The Neurospaces Model Container (NMC), and the solver (generally heccer).

These lines set up SSPy as the scheduler component:

from test_library import add_sspy_path
from sspy import SSPy
scheduler = SSPy(verbose=True)

To avoid the output of messages to the console window, set verbose=False.

The next set of lines create a model container that will hold the cell model:

my_model_container = scheduler.CreateService(name="My Model Container",
    type="model_container", verbose=True)

To reduce the amount of debugging output, set 'verbose=False' in this and following statements. Next, the model can be loaded into 'my_model_container', using the 'simplecell-nolib.ndf' model or one of your choice:


At this point, you can set model parameters, such as the injection:

my_model_container.SetParameter('/cell/soma', 'INJECT', 0.3e-09)

Once the model has been set up, a solver, heccer, has to be provided and linked to the model, and a time step set:

my_heccer = scheduler.CreateSolver('My solver', 'heccer', verbose=True)

Then some form of output has to be provided:

my_output = scheduler.CreateOutput('My output object', 'double_2_ascii')
my_output.AddOutput('/cell/soma', 'Vm')

In the first line above, an output object is created and scheduled for simulation. The first argument is a name, and the second is one of the output types listed with the SSPy shell 'list_output_plugins' command: 'double_2_ascii', 'line', and 'live_output'. 'double_2_ascii' is the default type for the G-shell and SSPy shell create_output command. It is equivalent in most ways to the GENESIS 2 'asc_file' object type. The second line is analogous to 'outfile', and the third to 'make_output' in the GENESIS 2 script simplecell-g3.g in the previous tutorial.

Optionally, the output resolution can be changed with:


Finally, the scheduler is given the command to run the simulation for 0.5 seconds:


or alternatively for an equivalent number of steps:


To run the script, check to be sure that the file permissions are set as "executable" and simply type ''. This is made possible by the first line of the file, which indicates that Python is to be invoked to run the script. After running the script, you may view the resulting file 'simplecell_soma_Vm.txt' with the G-3 standalone application g3plot, which was described earlier:

$ g3plot simplecell_soma_Vm.txt

Some variations

The 'SetParameter' command for the model container can set other simulation parameters that affect the simulation. Instead of setting the soma injection current, the 'FREQUENCY' field of the synaptically activated excitatory channel in the dendrite compartment can be set with:

my_model_container.SetParameter('/cell/dend/Ex_channel', 'FREQUENCY', 200.0)

in order to produce Poisson-distributed random activation with an average frequency of 200 Hz.

Comments in illustrate some variations on providing output:

# an alternate way is to add output to the top level SPPy object
# This is can be useful when interfacing with a GUI
# scheduler.AddOutput('/cell/soma', 'Vm')

# to apply this to a particular output object 'output1', one would use
# scheduler.AddOutput('/cell/soma', 'Vm', 'output1')

However, in the current series of tutorial examples, we will continue to invoke AddOutput() on the output object.

By setting the output object type to 'line', instead of to 'douyble_2_ascii', the output will be sent to stdout, line by line as it would to an output file. (Be sure to remove the command that attempts to assign a filename.) This is useful when piping the output to another program or Python object for analysis or plotting. When the output object type is 'live_output', the data is output to a list of lists such as:

  [value1, value2, value3] # value for all outputs at step 0
  [value1, value2, value3] # value for all outputs at step 1
  [value1, value2, value3] #value for all outputs at step 2501

The list of all values at step 0 is given by:


and all values at step 100 is:


A typical usage in a script would be:

my_output = scheduler.CreateOutput('My output object', 'live_output')
my_output.AddOutput('/cell/soma', 'Vm')
my_output.AddOutput('/cell/dend', 'Vm')

output_data = my_output.GetData()

print "Data at step 100, time '%f' is %s" % (output_data[100][0],
    ','.join(map(str, output_data[100][1])))

In a GUI, if you wanted to run the simulation in a thread you can pass the output to the data portion of the GUI and refresh it while it is running. (This will be illustrated in a future tutorial.)

Adding graphical output within a script

The 'live_output' output object type can be used to make simulation output easily accessible for plotting within the Python simulation script. The script shown above can be modified to end with the statements:

my_output = scheduler.CreateOutput('My output object', 'live_output')
my_output.AddOutput('/cell/soma', 'Vm')

data = my_output.GetData()

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

x = []; y = []

for line in data:
    x_value = line[0]
    y_value = line[1]

plt.plot(x, y)
plt.title('Membrane Potential')

This produces a plot similar to that produced by the G-3 standalone application or g3plot, also included with the current G-3 distribution.

Other Models to Try

The plots produced by these variations of the simplecell model are all rather boring. This is because the basic 'squid-like' channels used in the soma produce no spike frequency adaptation or interesting firing patterns. This is just what is required in a squid axon, but not in a cortical neuron. For an interesting exercise, modify these scripts to to use the RScell model from the library 'cells/RScell-nolib2.ndf', or the De Schutter and Bower 1994 Purkinje cell model in 'cells/purkinje/edsjb1994.ndf'.

For other examples of scripting G-3 simulations with Python, see the latest test scripts by updating your G-3 installation (or just the sspy component) and looking in:


Interfacing models with other G-3 objects

The Experiment component of G-3 contains definitions of a number of object classes that can be interfaced with a model in order to implement experimental protocols for model stimulation and recording of results. The output objects used in the examples above are among these. The Perfect Clamp and PulseGen are others.

The example script extends to create a G-3 'pulsegen' as an Input object and use it for current injection to the soma. It also allows a choice of output devices, and specification of pulse generator parameters.

The script, which is best viewed in another window or tab while reading these explanations, begins by importing the usual Python modules, and then defines some default parameters to be used in the simulation:

# Boolean flags used for simulation output - pick one or both
file_out = True  # output to file
live_out = True  # live output to list of lists

Vm_file = 'simplecell_pulse_Vm.txt'

tmax = 0.5 # default run time

# Injection pulse parameters
# for constant injection, use injwidth = tmax, injdelay = 0

injcurrent = 0.3e-9 # default injection current
injdelay = 0.05     # default delay before injection pulse
injwidth = 0.2     # default width of injection pulse
injinterval = 0.25 # use larger interval >= tmax for a single pulse

It then follows with the usual commands that that set up needed paths and that create a Scheduler, Model Container, and Solver.

After setting up the heccer Solver time step as before, the script continues with:

# Create a pulsegen object for current injection
my_pulsegen = scheduler.CreateInput('pulsegen','pulsegen',verbose=True)
my_pulsegen.AddInput('/cell/soma', 'INJECT')

my_pulsegen.SetDelay2(injinterval - injdelay)

# alternatively, give it a very long delay to prevent repeating
# my_pulsegen.SetDelay2(100.0)

my_pulsegen.SetTriggerMode(0) # zero is "free run"

The G-3 implementation of 'pulsegen' follows that of the GENESIS 2 pulsegen object, with two separate sets of output levels, delays, and pulse widths. The second set allows for its use in two-step voltage clamp experiments with a conditioning pulse. Normally, only Delay1, Level1, and Width1 are used for a single current injection pulse, and Delay2 can be used to specify the time before it is repeated. Documentation for the GENESIS 2 pulsegen gives further details of the pulsegen parameters.

The code assigns default values to these parameters such that after a delay of 50 msec, there will be a pulse of height 0.3 nA, lasting for 200 msec, and then repeated with the same delay.

Note the use of the CreateInput() method of the scheduler to use the pulsegen for input. The created 'my_pulsegen' object has methods for AddInput(destination_segment, segment_parameter) and Set methods for the pulsegen parameters. These are invoked as illustrated above.

Then, the example script provides some more flexibility on providing output by using the conditional statements:

# Create Outputs
if file_out:
    Vm_file_out = scheduler.CreateOutput('File Out', 'double_2_ascii')
    Vm_file_out.AddOutput('/cell/soma', 'Vm')
    # Provide output a multiple of the simulation time step

# It is also possible to have two separate output objects
if live_out:
    Vm_live_out = scheduler.CreateOutput('Live Out', 'live_output')
    Vm_live_out.AddOutput('/cell/soma', 'Vm')
    # Provide output a multiple of the simulation time step

As both 'file_out' and 'live_out' were set to 'True' at the beginning of the script, output of the soma Vm will be directed both to the file ''simplecell_pulse_Vm.txt', and to a data structure (a Python list of lists) called 'Vm_live_out'. This example makes no use of the latter. However, it will be used in the next tutorial in this series.

The other addition made in this script is the definition of two functions to make use of the script easier:

def set_inject_pulse(current, delay, width, interval):
      my_pulsegen.SetDelay2(interval - delay)

def run_simulation(simulationtime):
        scheduler.Run(time=simulationtime, finish=False)

The first one provides a simple way of changing the injection pulse parameters, and the second one illustrates a variation of the scheduler.Run(time=0.5) command used to run the previous example. The Run method of the scheduler has a 'finish' option with a default value of 'True'. This causes the objects that were allocated to be destroyed at the end of a run. This may be desirable in some cases for large models, but in these examples, we would like to be able to re-run the simulation again with new parameters.

These definitions are used in the last lines of the script:

# run with default injection

print 'Started run: system time = ', time.time()
print 'Completed run: system time = ', time.time()

The statements to print out the system time make use of the imported 'time' module. After run_simulation(tmax) runs the simulation with the desired options, there is an option to uncomment the last four lines:

## uncomment the following lines to change parameters, Reset, and re-Run

# set_inject_pulse(0.5e-09, 0.05, 0.4, 100.0)
# Vm_file_out.SetAppend(True)
# scheduler.Reset()
# run_simulation(tmax)

The first of these uses the function set_inject_pulse defined above to give a new set of injection pulse parameters.

The second one illustrates the SetAppend() method of the output object. Here it is invoked on only the 'File Out' object 'Vm_file_out', with the assumption that it exists. The default behavior of the output classes is with SetAppend(False), insuring that the file is overwritten after a Reset and a new Run. Setting it True here is similar to setting the 'append' flag of the GENESIS 2 'asc_file' object, so that the second run will be appended to the first, instead of overwriting it.

The Reset method of the SSPy Scheduler sets the simulation time to zero, and performs the Reset method on other objects that are managed by the scheduler. This is necessary to before running the simulation again.

Then, a final 'run_simulation(tmax)' re-runs the simulation for the time tmax and the script exits after printing a message.

In the next tutorial in this series Creating a G-3 GUI with Python, we will learn how to interface this model with a scripted Python graphical environment that has a Control Panel to set model and simulation parameters and run the simulation, and that has graphs for plotting results. However, there is one more step required before we can use this simulation as a separate module in such an environment. That is to make it truly modular and object-oriented by implementing it as a Python class definition. Then, it can be instantiated as an object, e.g. 'mySim' with accessible parameters and methods.

Creating a G-3 simulation object

One advantage of implementing a complete simulation (or large part of one) as a separate object, is that it is easier to run in a separate thread, either for parallellization, or for independence from the GUI modules. This would allow, for example, a button on the Control Panel to stop a running simulation, or for results to be plotted as the simulation runs.

This example will not make use of mult-threading, but will illustrate the first step in using it as an independent module to be run either as a stand-alone script, or controlled from a GUI or other Python program.

When the final example script in this tutorial, is run as a main script, it creates a G3Sim instance 'mySim', sets injection parameters and outputs, then runs it for 0.5 seconds, generating the same output in the file 'simplecell_pulse_Vm.txt' as produced by

It will be useful to look at the listings of these two scripts while reading the following explanations.

'' begins with the usual header and import statements, and then it defines a class:

class G3Sim():
    def __init__(self):
      ''' "__init__" is invoked whenever an object is created from this class.
        This defines and initializes all the parameters and methods
        (defined functions) of the object.
      # -------------- default simulation parameters -------------

      # Boolean flags used for simulation output - pick one or both
      self.file_out = True  # output to file
      self.live_out = True  # live output to list of lists

The first definition within the class is its '__init__' method. As stated in the comment, the statements within this definition will be executed automatically when an object of class G3Sim is created. The method definition continues with the rest of the statements found in, but with with all of the variable and object names preceded by 'self.'. There are no other statements other than this method definition within the class definition.

The purpose of the use of 'self' can be seen in the lines at the end of the script that follow the G3Sim class definition:

if __name__ == '__main__':
    mySim = G3Sim()
    # run with default injection parameters
    print 'Started run: system time = ', time.time()
    print 'Completed run: system time = ', time.time()

    ## uncomment the following lines to change parameters, Reset, and re-Run
    # mySim.set_inject_pulse(0.5e-09, 0.05, 0.4, 100.0)
    # mySim.Vm_file_out.SetAppend(True)
    # mySim.scheduler.Reset()
    # mySim.run_simulation(mySim.tmax)

The 'if' statement checks to see if the script is being run as a main stand-alone program, rather than as being imported as a module by another. In this case, it executes these statements which correspond to the final statements of ''.

When the object 'mySim' is created from the G3Sim class definition, the initialization code is executed, initializing the variables and creating the needed objects and method definitions. In the class definition, 'self' refers to the G3Sim class object that will be created. Thus the command:


invokes the run_simulation() method of the simulation object, and uses the object variable 'tmax'.

Uncommenting the last four lines results in a change of parameters, a Reset, and a second run with these parameters, adding the results to the output file, as with the original ''.

The other thing to note is the different way that the functions 'set_inject_pulse' and 'run_simulation' are defined in '' when they are methods of a class:

def set_inject_pulse(self, current, delay, width, interval):
    self.my_pulsegen.SetDelay2(interval - delay)

def run_simulation(self,simulationtime):
      self.scheduler.Run(time=simulationtime, finish=False)

In these definitions, they have an extra argument 'self', that is not used when they are invoked.

With this script as a starting point, the G-3 Python scripting tutorials continue with the next tutorial Creating a G-3 GUI with Python. In this tutorial we will add a Control Panel and a graph, using a set of G-3 Python widgets that mimic the appearance and functionality of those used in GENESIS 2 with XODUS. Alternatively, if you are eager to begin constructing cortical networks with G-3 and wish to leave the graphics until later, you can continue with Modeling Synaptic Connections and Large Networks with G-3.