This file contains information about Parallel GENESIS (PGENESIS) version 2.2.1. This release, which replaces PGENESIS 2.2, incorporates some bug fixes to the July 2001 2.2 version, and to the January 15, 2002 2.2a version.It can be run on any platform which supports GENESIS 2.2.1 and the PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) software. When used with GENESIS version 2.2 or later, it allows GENESIS to be run on networks of workstations (NOW), symmetric multiprocessors (SMP) and massively parallel processors (MPP).

Parallel GENESIS is useful for simulations that must be run many times independently e.g., parameter-search, monte-carlo. It will also be of use for large scale models that do not fit in the memory of a single workstation, especially network models. The primary user-level changes are the extension of the script language to include some parallel programming constructs, the provision of GENESIS messages to cross cpu boundaries, and the use of the PVM parallel software layer.

PGENESIS is contained in the file pgenesis.2.2.1.tar.gz on the GENESIS ftp server. This is a gzipped tar file that untars into a directory "pgenesis" with the command:

        cat pgenesis.2.2.1.tar.gz | gunzip | tar -xvf -
If you do not have the gnu gunzip utility, you may download the larger version of the file with the ".Z" extension, which was produced with UNIX compress.

If you do not have PVM installed on your computer, you can get the latest version, as well as more information about PVM from the PVM home page:

A PVM distribution and manual is also available from the GENESIS ftp site, but it is not guaranteed to be the most recent version.

Installation and user setup instructions ofr PGENESIS are in pgenesis/README.1st and pgenesis/README.

Multiprocessor related instructions are in pgenesis/ README.paragon is specific to the Intel Paragon (as installed at Caltech). Web documentation is rooted at pgenesis/Hyperdoc/welcome.html. Additional information about PGENESIS may be obtained from the PGENESIS home page:

Questions and bug reports to: or to l need to have a copy of the files required by your simulation (data files, script files, etc) on each workstation, preferably in an identically named directory path.


PGENESIS 2.3.1 is compatible with GENESIS version 2.3, and contains a few minor bug fixes to PGENESIS version 2.3 (mostly for the Blue Gene/L architecture, and use of Xodus under MPI). Versions of PGENESIS older than 2.3 will not work with GENESIS 2.3.


PGENESIS adds a library (parlib) to an installed version of GENESIS, creating an executable "pgenesis" that has the usual GENESIS objects and commands, plus a "postmaster" object (post) and some other new objects and commands. The "postmaster" objects communicate with each other through a standard interprocess communication library such as MPI or PVM.

For more complete information on how to use PGENESIS, see the PGENESIS webpage: Dave Beeman has also put together a mini-tutorial on installing and using PGENESIS on multi-core PCs, which may be found in Hyperdoc/pgenesis_on_pcs_part1.html in this distribution.


  1. Download, compile, and install serial GENESIS version 2.3: If you have not obtained GENESIS already, download genesis-2.3-src.tar.gz from the GENESIS web site, or copy it from the CDROM if you have a CDROM distribution. This is a gzipped tar file which can be extracted with:
            cat genesis-2.3-src.tar.gz | gunzip | tar -xvf -

    This will produce a directory genesis-2.3/genesis. Follow the instructions in genesis-2.3/genesis/src/README. Make sure that after doing a "make" or "make nxall" you also do a "make install" or "make nxinstall".

  2. Download and untar PGENESIS (which you probably have already done if you are reading this). PGENESIS can be downloaded from the GENESIS web site, where you can get pgenesis-2.3.1-src.tar.gz. Extracting this, as described above, produces a genesis-2.3/pgenesis directory; hence it should be extracted in the same place that you extracted your genesis-2.3-src.tar.gz file. It will not affect your existing genesis subdirectory, it will just add a pgenesis subdirectory next to it. If you have already untarred it into a different place, you can just use "mv" to move the pgenesis subdirectory (containing this README) into the genesis-2.3 directory. Henceforth we will refer to the genesis-2.3/pgenesis subdirectory as ~pgenesis.

  3. Ensure either MPI or PVM is installed: Most clusters or parallel systems already have an installed MPI implementation, so our recommendation is to use that. (You can check if MPI is already there by typing "man MPI", "which mpirun", or looking in typical locations where community software is installed, e.g., /usr/lib/, /usr/local, /usr/local/packages/, /usr/share/, /opt, etc.) Any MPI implementation that supports MPI version 1 functionality should work. In particular the MPICH and LAM implementations are known to be compatible. If MPI does not appear to be installed, ask your system administrator to install a version appropriate for your system.

    If, instead of MPI, you want to use an existing PVM installation, you should have version 3.3.4 or later. If pvm is already on your PATH you can find out the version number with:

            echo version | pvm
    Make sure that your environment includes the proper settings for $PVM_ROOT and $PVM_ARCH, and that the PVM object libraries are in $PVM_ROOT/lib/$PVM_ARCH.

    If you want to install PVM, you can get the latest version, as well as more information about PVM from the PVM home page:

    You do not need the root password to install PVM. After untarring the distribution, you will find installation instructions in pvm3/Readme. A PVM manual is is also available from the PVM home page. A PVM distribution and manual is also available from the GENESIS ftp site, but it is not guaranteed to be the most recent version. See the PVM document for more specific issues about running PVM on multiprocessor machines.

  4. Modify the Makefile: The Makefile.dist file in the ~pgenesis directory should be copied to Makefile, which should then be edited for your platform type as described by the comments in the Makefile. Note that this is NOT ~pgenesis/src/Makefile, which should be left as is. For PVM, you must set PVM_ROOT and PVM_ARCH in the Makefile, unless you have set them in your .cshrc as described in the PVM manual. The default setting for PVM_ARCH should be correct in almost all cases. You will have to uncomment one of the machine/compiler dependent options for CC, CPP, CFLAGS, LIBS, SYSLIBS, etc. The GENESIS and INST_DIR macros should be set to, respectively, the full pathnames of the serial GENESIS installation and the directory in which parallel GENESIS should be installed (usually the PGENESIS root directory). The PARSRC_DIR should be set to the full pathname of ~pgenesis. Finally, uncomment the EDITED=yes assignment; the Makefile will not function until this is done.

  5. Compile the parallel libraries and executables: There are several Makefile targets available for compilation:
         'make nxinstall'      - to compile and install pgenesis without Xodus
         'make install'        - to compile and install pgenesis with Xodus
         'make extended'       - to install extended pgenesis with Xodus
         'make nxextended'     - to install extended pgenesis without Xodus
         'make env'            - to show some of the configuration settings
         'make clean'          - to remove this machine type's object files
         'make spotless'       - to remove all machine types' object files

    Normally, you will use the 'make install' command, which compiles and installs PGENESIS with Xodus. Once the Makefile has been customized, execute:

         make install
    If you do not use Xodus, first make nxgenesis for serial GENESIS, and then execute "make nxinstall".

    If there are errors that are not ignored, then redo this command piping the output into a file and submit it as a bug report.

         make install > & ! make.out &
         (or for the Bourne shell: make install > make.out 2>&1 & )

    Note that, unlike the case with serial GENESIS, "make install" or "make nxinstall" is used to both compile and install PGENESIS.

    The compile process can be viewed by typing:

                    tail -f make.out        [ hit ^C to exit the tail ]
    Note that this is done in the pgenesis directory, NOT pgenesis/src. Also note that, unlike the case with serial GENESIS, 'make install' or 'make nxinstall' is used to both compile and install PGENESIS.

    This will create a shell script bin/pgenesis, which can be executed in order to start PVM and run the proper pgenesis binary file. The pgenesis binary is created in bin/<arch>, where <arch> is one of the architectures supported by PVM (e.g. ALPHA, LINUX, SGI5, SUN4, etc.) It will also create a .psimrc file that should be copied to your home directory.

    If you find that you need to make changes in the Makefile that are not described in the Makefile.dist comments, or need to make other corrections in order to install and run pgenesis, please report them to us.


After copying .simrc to your home directory, set your path to include pgenesis/bin, in order to be able to execute the pgenesis script from any directory. For example, if the Makefile setting for PARSRC_DIR is /usr/local/pgenesis and your shell is tcsh or csh, use:

       set path = ($path /usr/local/pgenesis/bin)

If you are using bash as your shell, use

You can do a simple test of PGENESIS by running the demo.g simulation script in the pgenesis Scripts/orient1 directory. After changing to this directory, start it with "pgenesis demo.g". This is a 3-way parallel decomposition of the genesis orient_tut simulation over 3 nodes. The default is to create these nodes on a single processor. (Of course, to achieve any advantage of using PGENESIS, you will want to use networked workstations or a multiple processor machine. Details for doing this are given in the documentation.)

The display will be somewhat like the serial GENESIS orient_tut simulation, and clicking on "sweep_horiz" should produce a similar pattern of activity and plots. A log file is created in o.out, so you will need to have write permission in the directory that contains this simulation.

For an even simpler test, or for debugging, you can try Scripts/hello.g.


Each user should be make sure that the PATH is set to include ~pgenesis/bin, where ~pgenesis is the root of the PGENESIS installation, i.e., the INST_DIR variable in the top level Makefile. If the script files you wish to use are not in your home directory, the examples directory, or the directory in which you run parallel GENESIS, you will need to add their directory path to the SIMPATH variable in the .simrc file you use. By default this is .psimrc for PGENESIS worker nodes.

You can run PGENESIS by typing "pgenesis scriptfile".

There are several available options, which may be listed by typing "pgenesis -help". The most commonly used of these are:

        -config <file>      where <file> is a file containing a list
                              of machines to be used (1 per line)
        -nox                run without Xodus
        -debug tty          create a window for each pgenesis node
        -browse             browse the documentation using netscape


For any use of PGENESIS beyond the simple test described below, see the documentation in the Doc and Hyperdoc directories. You can access the HTML documentation by pointing your browser at Hyperdoc/index.html. The file gives instructions for use on multiprocessor machines. The documentation also describes the use of PGENESIS on a network of workstations. Please report any inaccuracies to the mailing list or forums at


Normally the master node sends its output to your screen and the worker nodes send their output to the file /tmp/pvml.???? on the machine they are running on, where ???? is your uid on that machine. Many script bugs can be tracked down by examining those /tmp/pvml.???? files. Note that PVM appends to these files on every run, until PVM is halted and restarted. Also note that if a worker node exits without executing "paroff", some of its output to stdout/stderr which is buffered may not appear in the /tmp/pvml.???? file.

Output from the workers can be redirected to a file by giving the paron command the -output <filename> option. <filename> can be /dev/tty, in which case the worker output appears on your screen mixed with the master's output.

If you are running X-Windows, you can have each worker create its own window and send its output there by using the "-debug tty" flag when invoking PGENESIS. This requires that your DISPLAY environment variable is set to "hostname:0" when you invoke the pgenesis script.

By default PGENESIS starts the workers using -silent 3 which minimizes the messages printed by the workers (e.g., the banner). To see more worker status messages, give the paron command the -silent 0 option.

Common errors include:

        0. User impatience leads to interruption of PGENESIS
           before it has completed the initialization of the workers.
           The timeout is set to 120 seconds, for maximum information
           about the problem, let PGENESIS timeout if it fails
           to initialize workers properly (i.e., wait!).

        1. PVM can't find the worker executable.  This is specified
           with the -executable <filename> option of the paron
           command, the default is "pnxgenesis".  This executable,
           or a link to it, should be in ~/pvm3/bin/$PVM_ARCH.
           A symptom of this problem is that PGENESIS reports it
           failed to spawn workers and the /tmp/pvml.??? files are
           empty apart from the header.

        2. PVM aborts worker startup due to I/O in your .cshrc
           Symptoms of this are that PGENESIS reports workers
           failed to spawn and the /tmp/pvml.??? files contain
           error messages about TTY or other strange things, and
           no GENESIS startup banner.  Modify your .cshrc as
           described in pvm-cshrc.stub.

        3. The workers can't find the script containing the paron
           command.  Symptoms of this are that PGENESIS reports
           workers failed to spawn and the /tmp/pvml.??? files
           show the GENESIS prompt with no attempt to execute
           paron, or the startup banners show that the script file
           could not be found.  Edit your ~/.psimrc and ~/.nxpsimrc
           so that SIMPATH lists the directories containing the

        4. Incorrect use of barriers.  Symptoms are that the master
           or some worker(s) hang and eventually timeout.  Examine
           your use of barriers.  Note that some commands contain
           implicit barriers, it is possible there is a bug in
           the source - if you suspect this mail

For more information on the finer points of using PVM, refer to the PVM user guide.


This section is intended for GENESIS users who have written or are using custom GENESIS libraries written in C that need to get compiled and linked into the GENESIS executable. For PGENESIS libraries are constructed just as for serial GENESIS, each in its own subdirectory in a canonical form. See the GENESIS documentation for descriptions of this form. In this section we describe how to link these libraries with PGENESIS components to create an extended PGENESIS.

Assuming your libraries are subdirectories of a root directory I'll call MYPGEN, these are the steps you follow to create and run extended PGENESIS.

  1. Copy ~pgenesis/lib/Usermake to MYPGEN/Makefile. Modify the Makefile for your platform type as described in the Makefile. You must set PVM_ROOT and PVM_ARCH in the Makefile, unless you have set them in your .cshrc as described in the PVM manual. The default setting for PVM_ARCH should be correct in almost all cases. You will have to uncomment one of the machine/compiler dependent options for CC, CPP, CFLAGS, LIBS, SYSLIBS, etc. The GENESIS and INST_DIR macros should be set to, respectively, the full pathnames of the serial GENESIS installation and the directory in which parallel GENESIS should be installed (usually the PGENESIS root directory).
  2. Now add the names of your libraries and their subdirectories to USERLIB and USERDIR and set the installation root for your extended PGENESIS in USERINST. Execute
            'make nxextended'       to make extended PGENESIS without Xodus
            'make extended'         to make extended PGENESIS with Xodus.

  3. This should create USERINST/bin and USERINST/lib containing various files. The only one you need to be aware of is USERINST/bin/pgenesis. To run your extended PGENESIS, set your path to include USERINST/bin early. Then invoke extended PGENESIS with 'pgenesis' just as you would for vanilla PGENESIS.


When using PVM-based PGENESIS on various SMPs:

On symmetric multiprocessors (e.g, Solaris multiprocessor, SGI Challenge, DEC AXP/8k series) you may need to increase the number of shared memory segments and perhaps other parameters of the shared memory system to run PVM effectively. For example, on Solaris multiprocessor, you need to add the following to /etc/system:

     set shmsys:shminfo_shmseg = 100
     set shmsys:shminfo_shmmni = 100

On ALPHA and HP SMPs, we have found that PVM does not always release the shared memory segments and semaphores it uses. Unreleased items can use up all available shared memory/semaphore resource. The script ~pgenesis/bin/ipclean attempts to release these resources. You can use the command "ipcs" to see the status of the shared memory system. In extreme cases a reboot is necessary to clean it out.

When using PVM-based PGENESIS on SGI/Cray Origin 2000:

There is a problem with PVM 3.4.beta3, PVM 3.3.11, and probably earlier versions, in which the pvm_trecv call consumes processor time while it is waiting. The effect that this has is to cause all PGENESIS processes on the Origin 2000 to continuously consume cycles, even if they are waiting for messages to arrive from elsewhere. So, if you have more processes than processors, this will cause a significant deterioration in performance.

When using PVM-based PGENESIS on DEC 8400:

PVM appears to have problems in occasionally generating unkillable processes. Machine reboot has been the only recourse at times.


On HP-UX B.10.20 on an HP 9000/879 SMP, we found that serial GENESIS must be compiled with bison/flex:

     YACC = bison -y
     PARSER = bison
     LEX = flex -l
     LEXLIB = -lfl -lPW
     LIBS = $(LEXLIB) -lm
     XLIB = /usr/lib/X11R6

On Blue Gene/L (BGL) machines:

You may have to download, configure, and make flex-2.5.4 (or later). The LEXLIB line should be modified to point to where it resides.

The "NETCDFOBJ = $(GENESIS)/lib/netcdflib.o \" and following line will probably have to be commented out since we have had trouble getting the netcdf package to build on BGL.

Also remember to uncomment the "USE_MPI = 1" and following lines since PGENESIS needs to use MPI on BGL.